The Convair 990 Coronado was produced by Convair as an American narrow-body jet airliner powered by four engines. Developed from the Convair 880, it first flew in January 1961, entered service in 1962, and was used by American Airlines, Spantax, and Swissair. The aircraft was produced from 1961 to 1963 and was retired with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in September 1987. A total of thirty-seven Coronados were built.
The 990 Coronado was built out of a requirement from American Airlines for an aircraft that could fly coast-to-coast and could fly from New York to Los Angeles nonstop. On January 24, 1961, the Convair 990 took to the air for the first time. It was developed from the Convair 880 with large anti-shock bodies positioned on the upper trailing edge to boost the critical Mach and decrease transonic drag. The 990 was the initial production version while the 990A was the higher cruising speed and longer range version.
The 990A can accommodate four crew members plus cabin crew and up to 149 passengers on board. It has an external length of 42.60 meters, an external height of 6.3 meters, and a fuselage diameter of 3.35 meters. The tail height is 12.04 meters and the wheelbase is 18 meters. It has a wingspan of 37 meters and a wing area of 209 square meters. The empty weight is 60,328 kg, the maximum zero-fuel weight is 72,575 kg, the maximum takeoff weight is 114,759 kg, and the maximum landing weight is 91,626 kg.
The aircraft is powered by four General Electric CJ805-23B engines. It is a single-spool turbojet with a seventeen-stage axial flow compressor, can-annular combustors, two gas generator power stages turbine, and a pressure spray/splash oil system. Each engine produces a maximum thrust of 16,050 lbf.
The 990 has a maximum speed of 540 knots at 20,000 feet, a cruise speed of 484 knots at 35,000 feet, and a stall speed of 109 knots at 77,111 kg with wheels and flaps down. The travel range is 3,302 nautical miles with 47,343 kg of usable fuel, 11,689 kg of payload, and 8,165 kg of reserve fuel. The 990 Coronado can fly up to 41,000 feet and can climb at a rate of 3,250 feet per minute. The takeoff distance is 1,630 meters while the landing distance is 1,454 meters.